You can create custom fields beyond the standard fields to track the information that is relevant for you, in a way that makes sense to you: checkboxes, dropdown menus, radio buttons, text, dates. For each of the custom fields, you can control who can view and edit that field. And yes, you can also report on the custom fields. You can group and order the Custom Fields in Custom Field Groups of your choice.
It can be a pain to manage multiple dropdowns and keep them consistent. Rather, use a custom list to serve as a master for dropdown lists that you can use throughout the application.
Create custom tables so you can track all those details and information in your core employee records. Having comprehensive employee records is a bedrock of a solid HR foundation.
Workflows allow you to guide a process with tasks, checklists and deadlines. These workflows can have as many different phases or sections and as many steps or tasks as you need. You can assign them to users and track their level of completion.
Launch workflows from the admin section in a user record using shortcuts.